Immediate_sync on vs off

This is one of the settings that can cause issues with growth of your distribution database or when running Snapshot. It is FALSE by default and it can be set on Publication level. You can check what setting you have by checking syspublications on published database or mspublications on Distributor and distribution database. Let me try to explain what impact have that setting to your replication setup. We are assuming your distribution retention is not “fixed set” like this @min_distretention=48, @max_distretention=48 but more like this @min_distretention=8, @max_distretention=48. More about how this works in the following post.


Normal behavior when your retention is set to min=8 and max=48 will be that transactions that been delivered to subscribers and are older than 8 hour will be removed by distribution cleanup. However that changes with Immediate_sync set to ON. The transactions will be kept (even if delivered) until get older than 48 hours. Also it matters when you adding new subscribers. If Snapshot was generated within last 48 hours and you add subscriber it will use existing snapshot and deliver all the transactions that were marked for replication after snapshot generation. Here is an example.

We have Publication1 with TableA as an article and it is published to Subscriber, Subscriberdb database.


Snapshot was generated within that 48 hour period and two rows added to TableA on Publisher.



We are planning to add new subscription stream to same subscriber but to Subscriberdb_2 database. After the creation you do not need to run Snapshot again it will use old Snapshot and all transactions that been delivered afterwards.

New subscription_ON

You can see that it used old Snapshot as TableA has 0 rows (we inserted 2 rows before creating new subscription) and once you select from TAbleA on Subscriberdb_2 you will find two rows. These been delivered as normal replication transactions.


From my perspective there is one downside of that setting, especially when you are planning to add new articles quite often. Every time you add new article and want to send a snapshot of these new articles down to subscribers the Snapshot Agent will generate a snapshot for ALL articles with that Publication. In other word last Snapshot has been invalidated.  Lets add TableB to that Publication1 and lets run snapshot.


The Snapshot will generate two articles:


However existing Subscribers will send down only new articles TableB:


The generation of Snapshot for ALL tables could be problematic when you publishing hundreds of large tables already. Adding one article will generate new snapshot for all of these tables and from my experience it will generate some locks on Publisher especially if Publisher is very busy.

Lastly the snapshot will be generated no matter if you add new articles or not. If someone will kick off snapshot by mistake it will still do snapshot for entire publication.

Lets have a look how it looks if this setting will be set to FALSE.


First thing will be that will be different is that you will need to generate full snapshot every time you adding new subscription.

Second thing that will change is when your retention is set to something like that @min=0 and @max=72. All transactions that have been delivered will be cleaned up on the next Distribution Cleanup job run.

Third difference is that when adding new articles to existing publication the next snapshot run will generate ONLY files for new articles. Lets have an example.

First we changing setting to FALSE by running sp_changepublication:


Now lets add TableC into Publication1:


and run snapshot:


As you can see Snapshot has been generated only for one Table, TableC. That is quite convenient especially when you adding one table into publication that already have hundreds of other tables.

Which settings you should choose? As always it depends on your environment. How often you adding article into Publication? How much space you have on your distributor? How busy is your Publisher? Can you afford of running snapshot for entire Publication?

Push vs. Pull Subscription

As I mentioned already on How to create new Subscription? you can choose between push or pull subscription. There are some benefits but also some drawbacks for both solutions.

The main difference between push and pull is the location of a distribution agent (actual SQL Job). In Push distribution agent is located on the Distributor and there you will be able to find it as a local SQL job (Category: REPL-Distribution). With Pull the job will be located on a Subscriber. Here are pros and cons of both.

PULL (Pros)

  • Faster when going over WAN. In this case agent is “downloading” the data instead of sending it. You may need to consider this if data is going over to the other side of the world.
  • The load is moved from Distributor to Subscriber. The agent will be using subscriber resources. Could be important for you if you have multiple agents coming from one Distributor.

PULL (Cons)

  • Assuming you have multiple distribution agents to maintain it will get harder to maintain these as SQL jobs will be located on Subscriber. The big disadvantage for  me is that you can’t stop/start agent while being on Distributor. Again if you have multiple distributions agents to maintain it is much better if you can do it from central location which is Distributor.  If you logged on Distributor and have Replication Monitor open you wont be able to stop/start such distribution agent (screenshot below). Also job_id in msdistribution_Agents in Distribution db is different than job id on subscriber when using pull, which is bit harder to map SQL job to actual distribution agent.


  • If Subscriber is really busy and under pressure already it won’t be good to get more load by adding Distribution agent. However one distribution agent wont make a big difference. That could be different story if we have multiple agents running on that given subscriber.
  • In some cases it could be a security issue. Especially when we have subscriber located on some 3rd party/remote location etc. In that case you will need to open port 1433 for subscriber to your distributor. Distribution agent need access to Distributor.

Push (Pros)

  • Everything can be managed from one location. It is much easier to apply changes to distribution agents, monitor and stop/start agents in bulk.

Push (Cons)

  • Slower than Pull when going over WAN.
  • If there are multiple agents going trough one Distributor you may need to consider separate box just for remote Distributor (that means additional costs).

What should you use? As always… IT DEPENDS:). Depends:

  • how many distribution agents you have
  • how fast is connection to your Subscribers
  • what are security policies in your company
  • how you prefer to manage your replication environment

The choice is yours:) You just need to be aware of some limitations of both solutions

How to create new Subscription?

We already covered Configuring Distributor and Publisher as well as Creating Publication . Now there is time to tell more about creating Subscriptions. As always you can create it by using GUI or T-SQL. In this post I will cover GUI setup of new subscriptions.

We already created Publication and we are ready to create subscription. Go to Replication tree on Publisher and extend it. Right click on Publication and choose New Subscriptions:

New subscriptions

Wizard will Open and you will need to choose under what publication you want to create new subscription:

choose publication

Now you will need to choose if the subscription will be Push or Pull. The main difference is where the Distribution Agent will be located. Pull -> Distribution Agent will be located on Subscriber, Push -> Agent will be located on Distributor. More about PUSH vs PULL I will cover in separate post.


In next window you will need to choose the new subscriber. Note: you can create in that window Multiple subscriptions. You can add more than one server (!) which is pretty great if you need to send same data to multiple subscribers:

Choose subscriber

At this point you will make first connection to the subscriber there are two things you need to keep in mind. 1st You need to have access to that server from the place you creating the subscription.  2nd you need to use same or higher version of SSMS than your Subscriber is… otherwise u will get an error (more about this here: The selected Subscriber does not satisfy the minimum version compatibility level of the selected publication. ) Both conditions are not needed when using T-SQL.

Once you connect to subscriber you need to choose subscriber DB:


Next window is Security Settings for Distribution Agent. As always you need to choose processing account. That is the account that distrib.exe will be running under (more about this here: Understanding Replication Agents). Second, how this agent will connect to Distributor and third is the account that will be used to connect to Subscriber. If Processing account don’t have permissions to subscriber or Subscriber is in different domain just use SQL Authentication (or grant permissions if possible).


In next step you need to decide if the Distribution Agent should run continuously or not. In 99% cases you want to run continuously (for some reason you using Transactional replication). It pretty much means that Agent will be running all the time and will be started every time SQL Agent will start.


Last step is to choose if you want to initialize Subscription and when. Initialize means new snapshot will be generated (or not if using Immediate Sync) and schema/data will be synced to subscriber. If you choose not to, the agent wont send ANY schema and start replicate data from the point when subscription will be created. The only thing that Distribution Agent will “sync” will be replication procedures. Those will be delivered before any data. Replication Procedures will be always send down in either option (if initialize then replication procs will be included in snapshot).

You can also choose if initialization will be done later (when snapshot agent will be started) or Immediately (means snapshot will be kicked off as soon as Subscription will be created).


Last window you need to decide that either Subscription will be created or just script generated (or both).


It is good practice to save the script as it is bit easier later if you want to re-create or create more same subscriptions.

Once you finished wizard you will see the Subscription under Publication that you choose at the beginning. In next post I will describe more how to create subscirption by using T-sql. Using T-SQL u have a bit more control over the settings and you avoiding few issues that can occure when setting up by using SSMS.

The selected Subscriber does not satisfy the minimum version compatibility level of the selected publication.

As you may know SQL Replication can replicate data between different versions of SQL. It can replicated data from SQL 2012 to SQL 2016 etc. It can also replicate data from higher version to a lower version of SQL. However if you are trying to setup replication to a subscriber that is on higher version than your publisher you may get following error:

“The selected Subscriber does not satisfy the minimum version compatibility level”

Now the problem occurs only when you are adding a new subscriber using GUI and it is related only to version of SSMS you are using during setup.

Lets assume you are configuring subscriber that is on 2016 but your publisher and distributor is on 2012. You most likely connected to a Publisher and trying to add new subscription stream.

You have two solution for this:

  1. Use T-sql. When setting up by using T-SQL, the version of subscriber is not being checked as you are not even trying to connect to a subscriber. Only Distribution agent will connect to it later after the setup.
  2. As T-SQL setup could be bit difficult you have a second solution, which is to use tools that are on the same version as subscriber (in our example it should be SSMS 2016). You can do it either from Subscriber or other server. NOTE: The tools/SSMS should be located on workstation/server that have access to Publisher/Distributor and Subscriber. you need to have access to all 3 components of replication.

If you have other solution for this issue let me know in comments:)

How to setup Transactional Replication? Part 2 (Publications and articles)

In Part 1 we covered configuring Publisher and Distributor server. Now you are ready to create first publications and add articles. We will focus on doing this by using SSMS.


First step is to create Publication on a database that you want to publish. Since you already setup Publisher and Distributor you should be able to extend Replication tree and Right Click on Publication, choose New Publication:


This will open new Publication Wizard:


On the Next window you will need to choose which database you want to publish. This will enable given database for Publishing:


In next step you need to choose type of replication. We focusing only on Transactional Replication and we choosing that one:


Now you need to choose articles. You can choose Tables, Procedures, Functions etc. In my DB I have only Tables:


You can extend each Table to get column list and you can “filter” it vertically by removing some columns from replication. You don’t need to replicate entire table schema.

On the right side you have Article Properties button. You either set Properties for highlighted article or for ALL articles in this Publications. The list of the settings is quite impressive.

Articles Properties

You can decide if you want to copy triggers, all indexes, if table will be dropped on subscriber, choose if you want to send deletes or not etc. There are plenty of settings that you can modify. Choose wisely as some of these settings can invalidate snapshot and you will need to re-snapshot publication. As there are so many of these properties I will go describe it more in separate post.

In next step you can “filter” articles horizontally by adding WHERE condition. For Example you want to replicate only new data then you can set condition on date column etc.


As you can see amount of properties and configurations that you can use are making replication very flexible:)

In next step you need to decide when Initial Snapshot will be run. If you don’t want to choose anything, you can always run it manually from replication Monitor. You can either schedule Snapshot or choose to generate snapshot straight after publication will be created:


Next step is to configure Security settings for LogReader and Snapshot agent:


I already explained (Understanding Replication Agents Part 1 , Understanding Replication Agents Part 2 ) How Replication Agents work. In that place you configuring Processing Account (under what account jobs and exec will be running) and what account will be used in order to connect to Publisher. You can setup different account for LogReader and Snapshot. You also need to keep in mind that account that will be used to connect to Publisher need to have relevant permissions (sysadmin) on Publisher. That account will be generating Snapshot and reading transaction log on Published database.


For this example I choose for both SQL Service account. NOTE: I needed to grant permission for Distributor (if remote one) SQL service account on Publisher. If you choosing different processing account for Snapshot than SQL service account, you need to make sure that this account have permissions do file system on Distributor. Snapshot agent will be creating folders and files on disk. SQL Service will have that permissions but if you use different account you may have issues when generating snapshot.

In next step you can choose that either Publication will be created or just generate the script for the Publication you just configuring (or both):


It could be useful to save T-Sql script as it may me useful in future. It is also nice to see what exactly happen when you configuring Publication (as there are many procs executed and configuration changed during that process that you do not see when using SSMS).

Finally we can put name of our Publication and Finish configuration:

Naming Publication

If all went well you will see new Publication in your SSMS:



This is pretty much entire process of creating basic publication for Transactional Replication. Easy?? Yeah it is easy we will go bit “deeper” in next post.

In next posts will describe some of the articles settings that you can modify, creating subscriptions and configuring Publications/Subscriptions by  using T-sql.

Configuring distributor and publisher with T-SQL

I already described how to configure distributor and publisher by using GUI.

How to setup Transactional Replication? Part 1

However if you have to setup more than one publisher  to setup and also multiple distributors (or distribution dbs) it is getting quite hard to do it quickly. I often you one remote distributor server and multiple distribution dbs on that one server. That below script helped me a lot.  By default I set retention to 48 hours and 24 hours for history. You can change it in the script or later by using GUI. Script will also generate code that you need to run on Publisher server in order to enable Replication and configure distributor.

Note: It will try to create a folder, if parameter @create_folder set to 1, otherwise it will create db in default or provided path. Still if you want to create folder for new distribution database xp_cmdshell need to be enabled on the server.

If you have any improvements or comments to below script let me know.

/* NOTE: 
1.You need to run the script for EACH distribution db u want to create
2.Model db cant be in use during the installation (It need exclusive lock on model in order to create distribution db)
/****** Installing the server as a Distributor.  ******/
use master

declare @distribution_Db nvarchar(300),
@path nvarchar(300),
@SQL nvarchar(max),
@publisher nvarchar(300),
@password nvarchar(300),
@distributor nvarchar(200),
@create_folder bit

-------------- setting variables ------
set @distributor=@@servername
set @distribution_db=''
set @password=''
set @publisher=''
set @path =NULL -- leave null if u want to create distribution db in this forlder: 
--select substring(physical_name,1,patindex('%tempdb%',physical_name)-1) from sys.master_files where database_id in (select database_id from sys.databases where name='tempdb') and file_id =1
set @create_folder =1 --xp_cmdshell need to be enabled otherwise distribution db will be created in default folder. Set to 0 if you created folder manually.
-------------- end of variables --------

--Configuring Distributor
if not exists (select 1 from sys.servers where is_distributor=1 and name ='repl_distributor' and data_source=@distributor)
exec sp_adddistributor @distributor = @distributor, @password = @password

if @create_folder =1 and @path is NULL

		select @path=substring(physical_name,1,patindex('%tempdb%',physical_name)-1) from sys.master_files where database_id in (select database_id from sys.databases where name='tempdb') and file_id =1

if @create_folder =1 and @path is not NULL
		set @path = @path + @distribution_Db
set @sql = 'exec xp_cmdshell ''mkdir '  +@path +''''
print @sql
if @create_folder =1
	 if exists (select 1 from sys.configurations where name ='xp_cmdshell' and value_in_use =1)
	print 'Creating Folder  ' + @path
	exec sp_executesql @sql
	print 'xp_cmdshell not enabled. Db will be created in default folder'
	set @path =NULL

-- Adding the distribution databases
if @path is not NULL
set @path = @path + '\'

if @path is NULL
print 'Distribution db will be created in default folder'

if not exists (select 1 from sys.databases where name =@distribution_db)
exec sp_adddistributiondb @database = @distribution_db, 
@data_folder = @path, 
@log_folder = @path,  
@min_distretention = 48, 
@max_distretention = 48, 
@history_retention = 24, 
@security_mode = 1

-- Adding the distribution publishers
exec sp_adddistpublisher @publisher =@publisher,
 @distribution_db = @distribution_Db, 
 @security_mode = 1, 
  @publisher_type = N'MSSQLSERVER'

/****** End: Script to be run at Distributor ******/

select 'Execute on publisher ' + @publisher
select 'use master 
exec sp_adddistributor @distributor = ''' + @distributor + ''' , @password = '''+ @password +''''